Query syntax

Query statements scan one or more tables or expressions and return the computed result rows. This topic describes the syntax for SQL queries in GoogleSQL for BigQuery.

SQL syntax notation rules

The GoogleSQL documentation commonly uses the following syntax notation rules:

  • Square brackets [ ]: Optional clause.
  • Curly braces with vertical bars { a | b | c }: Logical OR. Select one option.
  • Ellipsis ...: Preceding item can repeat.
  • Red square brackets [ ]: Required and part of the syntax.
  • Red curly braces { }: Required and part of the syntax.
  • Red vertical bar |: Required and part of the syntax.

SQL syntax

query_statement:
    query_expr

query_expr:
  [ WITH [ RECURSIVE ] { non_recursive_cte | recursive_cte }[, ...] ]
  { select | ( query_expr ) | set_operation }
  [ ORDER BY expression [{ ASC | DESC }] [, ...] ]
  [ LIMIT count [ OFFSET skip_rows ] ]

select:
  SELECT
    [ WITH differential_privacy_clause ]
    [ { ALL | DISTINCT } ]
    [ AS { STRUCT | VALUE } ]
    select_list
  [ FROM from_clause[, ...] ]
  [ WHERE bool_expression ]
  [ GROUP BY group_by_specification ]
  [ HAVING bool_expression ]
  [ QUALIFY bool_expression ]
  [ WINDOW window_clause ]

SELECT statement

SELECT
  [ WITH differential_privacy_clause ]
  [ { ALL | DISTINCT } ]
  [ AS {